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小程序卡券签名错误的解决方案

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这个问题我相信很多人都碰到过,我也不另外。遇到这个问题的时候,也上网搜索过,可惜,网上的答案都是千篇一律,没办法我只能仔细研究官方文档。最终,让我搞定了这个问题。各位网友,只要你按照我的步骤走下去,100%包你过。我们先看一张效果图:下面我先从后端为大家讲解,原理我就不说了,大家自己看官网。由于我的后端用的是PHP,因此使用的是thinkphp5来实现这个功能,不懂thinkphp5的朋友可以去网上恶补一下,后期我会单独推出hinkphp5开发视频,我会尽最大努力能让大家看懂。在这里需要重点说明一下,一定要把小程序与微信公众号绑定在一起。这个可以通过微信公众号内“绑定小程序”功能来实现。一、获取access_tokenpublic function getAccessToken() {$appId = ‘微信公众号的APPID’; //注意,这里不是微信小程序的APPID$secret = ‘微信公众号的secret’; //注意,这里也不是微信小程序的secret/*以上两个参数,是在微信公众号的基本配置里面查看注意:这个accesstoken一定要缓存起来,因为它有时效性(7200秒)*/ $access_token = Catch::get(‘access_token’);        if ($access_token) {            return $access_token;        } else {            $timeout = 5;            $url = “https://api.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/token?grant_type=client_credential&appid=”.$appId.”&secret=” . secret;            $curl = curl_init();            curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);            curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_URL,$url);            curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);            curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT, $timeout);            //获取access_token和openid,转换为数组            $access = json_decode(curl_exec($curl),true);            Cache::set(‘access_token’, $access[‘access_token’], 7200);            return $access[‘access_token’];        }}二、获取卡券的ticket/**     * 获取卡券ticket     * @return mixed|string     */    public function getCardApiTicket() {        $api_ticket = Cache::get(‘card_api_ticket’);        if ($api_ticket) {           return $api_ticket;        } else {            $token = $this->getAccess_token(); //上一步得到的access_token            $url = “https://api.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/ticket/getticket?access_token=” . $token . “&type=wx_card”;            $api_ticket = $this->request_Get($url);            $res = json_decode($api_ticket, true);            Cache::get(‘card_api_ticket’,$res[‘ticket’],7200);            return $res[‘ticket’];        }    }/*** * GET方法 * @param $url * @return mixed */public function request_Get($url){    $curl = curl_init();    $timeout = 5;    curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);    curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_URL,$url);    curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);    curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT, $timeout);    $tmpInfo = curl_exec($curl);     //返回api的json对象    //关闭URL请求    curl_close($curl);    return $tmpInfo;    //返回json对象}三、卡券签名这一步是非常关键的一步,很多人都是在这里栽跟头的。为了不让大家走弯路,我会详细说明。根据官网的要求,我们添加卡券的时候需要提供卡券ID,时间戳,签名,这里最难的一个就是签名,根据我本人的多次调试,终于找到了一劳永逸的方法。代码如下: /**     * 获取卡券签名     * @param $timestamp int 时间戳     * @param $api_ticket string 卡券ticket     * @param $noncestr string 随机字符串,由开发者设置传入,加强安全性(若不填写可能被重放请求)。随机字符串,不长于 32 位     * @param $card_id string 卡券ID     * @param $openid string 用户的微信小程序openid     * @param $code string 卡的编号     * @return array     */    public function cardSignature($timestamp, $api_ticket, $noncestr, $card_id, $openid, $code){        $arr = array();        $arr[‘timestamp’] = $timestamp;        $arr[‘code’] = $code;        $arr[‘nonce_str’] = $noncestr;        $arr[‘ticket’] = $api_ticket;        $arr[‘openid’] = $openid;        $arr[‘card_id’] = $card_id;//根据官网说明,卡券签名需要的参数有:timestamp(时间戳),code(卡的编号),nonce_str(随机字符串),ticket(卡券ticket),openid(用户的openid),card_id(卡券的ID)        sort($arr, SORT_STRING); //排序,这一步一定要有,否则会不成功        $str = ”;        foreach ($arr as $v) {            $str .= $v;        }//通过foreach组装成字符串        $signature = sha1($str); //最后通过sha1生成签名        return array(‘code’ => $code,’openid’ =>$openid,’timestamp’=>$timestamp,’nonce_str’=>$noncestr,’signature’=>$signature);    }//最后把数据返回给前端微信小程序前端显示如下,大家可以对照我的方法,签名的返回信息是跟小程序对应的。wx.addCard({  cardList: [    {      cardId: ”,      cardExt: ‘{“code”: “”, “openid”: “”, “timestamp”: “”, “signature”:””}’    }, {      cardId: ”,      cardExt: ‘{“code”: “”, “openid”: “”, “timestamp”: “”, “signature”:””}’    }  ],  success: function(res) {    console.log(res.cardList) // 卡券添加结果  }})四、获取卡券 /**     * 获取用户卡券     * @return mixed     */    public function getUserCard() {        $openid = input(‘openid’); //前端传的参数              $token = $this->getAccess_token(); //这里就是之前获取的access_token        $url = “https://api.weixin.qq.com/card/user/getcardlist?access_token=” . $token; //调用接口凭证        $data = array();        $data[‘openid’] = $openid;        $dataRes = $this->request_post($url, json_encode($data));        $res = json_decode($dataRes,true);               if ($res[‘errcode’] == 0) {            //成功            $list = array();            $timestamp = time(); //时间戳            $card_ticket = $this->getCardApiTicket(); //获取卡券API_ticket            $nonce_str = $this->generateNonceStr(); //随机字符串            foreach ($res[‘card_list’] as $k => $val) {                $result = $this->cardSignature($timestamp,$card_ticket,$nonce_str,$val[‘card_id’],$openid,$val[‘code’]);                $list[‘cardId’] = $val[‘card_id’];                $list[‘cardExt’] = json_encode($result);            }            return $this->resMap(200, $list, $list);        } else {            return $this->resMap(4002,’暂时没有数据’,’暂时没有数据’);        }    }/** * 发送post请求 * @param string $url * @param string $param * @return bool|mixed */public function request_post($url = ”, $param = ”){    if (empty($url) || empty($param)) {        return false;    }    $postUrl = $url;    $curlPost = $param;    $ch = curl_init(); //初始化curl    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $postUrl); //抓取指定网页    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0); //设置header    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1); //要求结果为字符串且输出到屏幕上    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, FALSE);    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST, FALSE);    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1); //post提交方式    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $curlPost);    $data = curl_exec($ch); //运行curl    curl_close($ch);    return $data;}/** * 密码字符集 * @param int $length * @return string */public function generateNonceStr($length=16){    // 密码字符集,可任意添加你需要的字符    $chars = “abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789”;    $str = “”;    for($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++)    {        $str .= $chars[mt_rand(0, strlen($chars) – 1)];    }    return $str;}  /**     * 返回提示信息     * @param $code string 错误码  4001 空值  4002 格式不正确  4003 长度  4004 提示  200正确放回 ,0失败     * @param $msg string 错误描述     * @param $data string 返回值     * @return array     */    public function resMap($code, $msg, $data)    {        $map = array();        $map[‘errMsg’] = $msg;        $map[‘data’] = $data;        $map[‘errCode’] = $code;        return json($map);    }以上就是后端的核心代码,下面我们把上面的代码重新整理在一个页面上。namespace apprestcontroller;use thinkController;use thinkCache;use thinkLog;//类名为Cardclass Card extends Controller {/**获取access_token*/ public function getAccessToken() {$appId = ‘微信公众号的APPID’; //注意,这里不是微信小程序的APPID$secret = ‘微信公众号的secret’; //注意,这里也不是微信小程序的secret/*以上两个参数,是在微信公众号的基本配置里面查看注意:这个accesstoken一定要缓存起来,因为它有时效性(7200秒)*/ $access_token = Catch::get(‘access_token’);        if ($access_token) {            return $access_token;        } else {            $timeout = 5;            $url = “https://api.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/token?grant_type=client_credential&appid=”.$appId.”&secret=” . secret;            $curl = curl_init();            curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);            curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_URL,$url);            curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);            curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT, $timeout);            //获取access_token和openid,转换为数组            $access = json_decode(curl_exec($curl),true);            Cache::set(‘access_token’, $access[‘access_token’], 7200);            return $access[‘access_token’];        }  }/**     * 获取卡券ticket     * @return mixed|string     */    public function getCardApiTicket() {        $api_ticket = Cache::get(‘card_api_ticket’);        if ($api_ticket) {           return $api_ticket;        } else {            $token = $this->getAccess_token(); //上一步得到的access_token            $url = “https://api.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/ticket/getticket?access_token=” . $token . “&type=wx_card”;            $api_ticket = $this->request_Get($url);            $res = json_decode($api_ticket, true);            Cache::get(‘card_api_ticket’,$res[‘ticket’],7200);            return $res[‘ticket’];        }    }/*** * GET方法 * @param $url * @return mixed */public function request_Get($url){    $curl = curl_init();    $timeout = 5;    curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);    curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_URL,$url);    curl_setopt($curl,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);    curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT, $timeout);    $tmpInfo = curl_exec($curl);     //返回api的json对象    //关闭URL请求    curl_close($curl);    return $tmpInfo;    //返回json对象} /**     * 获取卡券签名     * @param $timestamp int 时间戳     * @param $api_ticket string 卡券ticket     * @param $noncestr string 随机字符串,由开发者设置传入,加强安全性(若不填写可能被重放请求)。随机字符串,不长于 32 位     * @param $card_id string 卡券ID     * @param $openid string 用户的微信小程序openid     * @param $code string 卡的编号     * @return array     */    public function cardSignature($timestamp, $api_ticket, $noncestr, $card_id, $openid, $code){        $arr = array();        $arr[‘timestamp’] = $timestamp;        $arr[‘code’] = $code;        $arr[‘nonce_str’] = $noncestr;        $arr[‘ticket’] = $api_ticket;        $arr[‘openid’] = $openid;        $arr[‘card_id’] = $card_id;//根据官网说明,卡券签名需要的参数有:timestamp(时间戳),code(卡的编号),nonce_str(随机字符串),ticket(卡券ticket),openid(用户的openid),card_id(卡券的ID)        sort($arr, SORT_STRING); //排序,这一步一定要有,否则会不成功        $str = ”;        foreach ($arr as $v) {            $str .= $v;        }//通过foreach组装成字符串        $signature = sha1($str); //最后通过sha1生成签名        return array(‘code’ => $code,’openid’ =>$openid,’timestamp’=>$timestamp,’nonce_str’=>$noncestr,’signature’=>$signature);    } /**     * 获取用户卡券     * @return mixed     */    public function getUserCard() {        $openid = input(‘openid’); //前端传的参数                     $token = $this->getAccess_token(); //这里就是之前获取的access_token        $url = “https://api.weixin.qq.com/card/user/getcardlist?access_token=” . $token; //调用接口凭证        $data = array();        $data[‘openid’] = $openid;        $dataRes = $this->request_post($url, json_encode($data));        $res = json_decode($dataRes,true);               if ($res[‘errcode’] == 0) {            //成功            $list = array();            $timestamp = time(); //时间戳            $card_ticket = $this->getCardApiTicket(); //获取卡券API_ticket            $nonce_str = $this->generateNonceStr(); //随机字符串            foreach ($res[‘card_list’] as $k => $val) {                $result = $this->cardSignature($timestamp,$card_ticket,$nonce_str,$val[‘card_id’],$openid,$val[‘code’]);                $list[‘cardId’] = $val[‘card_id’];                $list[‘cardExt’] = json_encode($result);            }            return $this->resMap(200, $list, $list);        } else {            return $this->resMap(4002,’暂时没有数据’,’暂时没有数据’);        }    }/** * 发送post请求 * @param string $url * @param string $param * @return bool|mixed */public function request_post($url = ”, $param = ”){    if (empty($url) || empty($param)) {        return false;    }    $postUrl = $url;    $curlPost = $param;    $ch = curl_init(); //初始化curl    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $postUrl); //抓取指定网页    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0); //设置header    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1); //要求结果为字符串且输出到屏幕上    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, FALSE);    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST, FALSE);    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1); //post提交方式    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $curlPost);    $data = curl_exec($ch); //运行curl    curl_close($ch);    return $data;}/** * 密码字符集 * @param int $length * @return string */public function generateNonceStr($length=16){    // 密码字符集,可任意添加你需要的字符    $chars = “abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789”;    $str = “”;    for($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++)    {        $str .= $chars[mt_rand(0, strlen($chars) – 1)];    }    return $str;}  /**     * 返回提示信息     * @param $code string 错误码  4001 空值  4002 格式不正确  4003 长度  4004 提示  200正确放回 ,0失败     * @param $msg string 错误描述     * @param $data string 返回值     * @return array     */    public function resMap($code, $msg, $data)    {        $map = array();        $map[‘errMsg’] = $msg;        $map[‘data’] = $data;        $map[‘errCode’] = $code;        return json($map);    }}前端如何使用一、获取用户的openid这里我们可以通过wx.login()方法获取,参考地址:https://developers.weixin.qq.com/miniprogram/dev/api/api-login.html,然后把openid作为一个参数传递给后端。在这里我插一句,要想获取用户的openid,我们需要通过wx.login方法往后退传递code参数,通过这个参数我们才能获取openid,如何操作,我们会在下一章节详细讲解。包括建表、后端、前端等知识。这里假设我们已经有了openid,那么我们就通过这个openid获取卡券,我把代码写在index.js里面,具体位置为onload:function();代码如下:  /**   * 生命周期函数–监听页面加载   */  onLoad: function (options) {   let that = this;    let openid = userInfo.m_openid;wx.request({  url: ‘https://xxx.com/rest/Card/getUserCard’, //仅为示例,并非真实的接口地址method: ‘POST’, //POST一定要大写  data: {     openid: openid,  },  header: {  ‘content-type’: ‘application/json’ // 默认值  },  success: function(res) {   if (res.errCode == 200) {//wx.addCard也就是微信小程序的API,地址:https://developers.weixin.qq.com/miniprogram/dev/api/card.html#wxaddcardobject        wx.addCard({          cardList: [res.errMsg],          success: function(rs) {            console.log(rs) // 卡券添加结果          }        })      }  else {// wx.showModal 弹窗        wx.showModal({          title: ‘提示’,          content: res.errMsg,          showCancel: false,          success: function(res) {console.log(res);          }        })      }  }})     },以上就是解决签名错误的详细方案,如果还有不明白的地方,大家可以加入我们的微信交流群:731568857。微信小程序

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